Israeli cuisine includes local dishes people from Israel and the dishes brought to Israel by Diaspora Jews.
Even before the establishment of the State of Israel, and particularly since the late 1970s, a kitchen "fusion" Israel has developed.
Israeli cuisine adopted and continue to adopt elements of different kinds of Jewish cuisine, particularly styles Mizrakhi kitchens, Sephardic, and Ashkenazi.
The kitchen incorporates many foods traditionally eaten in Middle Eastern and Mediterranean cuisines, that is to say, Amazigh and Arab dishes such as falafel (Arabic), hummus (Arabic), the chakchouka (Amazigh) couscous (Amazigh) and za'atar (Arabic) are now considered to be integrated into the Israeli cuisine.
Other influences on the cuisine are the availability of foods common to the Mediterranean region, including certain types of fruits and vegetables, dairy products and fish; traditional dishes at parties; the tradition of eating hide; and specific eating habits in different Shabbat and Jewish holidays, such as brioche khallah the jakhnoun the malaouakh the gefilte fish, the cholent (Khamin) and sufganiyot.
New dishes focused on agricultural products such as oranges, avocados, dairy products and fish, and others based on global gastronomic phenomena have been introduced over the years, and leaders trained abroad have brought elements coming from other international cuisines.
Culinary traditions of Israel include foods and cooking methods that are spread over three thousand years of history.
Over time, these traditions have been formed by influences from Asia, Africa and Europe, and religious and ethnic influences, which resulted a culinary melting pot.
Bible stories and archaeological findings provide insight into the culinary life of the region dating as far back as 968 BC. BC, the time of the kings of ancient Israel.
During the Second Temple period (516 BC -.. 70 AD), Hellenistic culture and ancient Rome strongly influenced the cuisine, especially the priests and aristocracy Jerusalem.
Elaborate meals were served, they included inputs prickly and alcoholic beverages, fish, meat, fresh vegetables and pickled, olives, and pies or fresh fruit.
The kitchen of the Hebrews was built on several products still play an important role in contemporary Israeli cuisine.
These products were known as the seven species: olives, figs, dates, pomegranates, wheat, barley and grapes.
Food, based on locally grown produce, was enriched by imported spices readily available due to the localization of the country at the crossroads of East-West trade routes.
After the destruction of the Second Temple and the exile of the majority of Jews in the land of Israel, Jewish cuisine has continued to develop in many countries where Jewish communities have existed since late antiquity, influenced by the economy, agriculture and the culinary traditions of these countries.
The Jewish community that lived in the Land of Israel before Zionist immigration that began in 1881 was known as the Old Yishuv.
The community kitchen was the Sephardic style kitchen, which had developed among the Jews of Spain before their expulsion in 1492, and in areas to which they migrated after this episode, particularly the Balkans and the Ottoman Empire .
Sephardim also established communities in the Old Yishuv.
In Jerusalem in particular, they continued to develop their culinary style, influenced by the Ottoman kitchen, creating a style that became known as Sephardic cuisine Jerusalem.
This included cooking pies and slippers as sambousaks, pastels and bourekas, gratins of vegetables and stuffed vegetables, rice and bulgur, rice pilaf, which are now considered classics of Jerusalem.
Eastern group of Hasidic Jews of Europe began to establish communities in the late eighteenth century and brought with them their traditional Ashkenazi kitchen, however developing unique local variations, such as the notable pudding and caramelized pepper noodles known under the name of Yerushalmi kugel.
With the Aliyah First in 1881, Jews began to immigrate in large numbers to Palestine from Eastern Europe, particularly Poland and Russia. These Zionist pioneers were inclined, both ideologically and because of the Mediterranean climate, to reject the styles of Ashkenazi kitchen with which they had grown up, and adjust using local foods, especially vegetables such as zucchini, peppers, eggplants, artichokes and chickpeas.
The first recipe book in Hebrew, written by Erna Meyer, and published in early 1930 by the Federation of Palestine of the Women's International Zionist Organization (WIZO), urged the cooks to use in their cuisine of Mediterranean spices and medium spices -Orientales, as well as local vegetables.
Bread, olives, cheese and raw vegetables they adopted became the basis breakfast kibbutz, which is still used more abundant in Israeli hotels, and in various forms in most Israeli homes Nowadays.
Impact of Immigration
Immigrants to Israel incorporated elements of cultures and cuisines which country they were from.
For about fifty years before 1948, there were waves of Jewish immigration, which brought with them a variety of foods and cooking styles.
Immigrants arriving from Central Europe brought dishes like schnitzel and strudel, while Russian Jews brought the borscht and herring.
Ashkenazi dishes include chicken soup, schnitzel and chopped liver, the gefilte fish and kugel.
The first Israeli patisseries were opened by Ashkenazi Jews, who popularized the cakes and pastries of Central and Eastern Europe, such as cakes leavened (babka), spirals nut (schnecken), chocolate rolls and pastries gender yarrow.
After 1948, the biggest impact came from the significant migration of Jews of Turkey, Iraq, Kurdistan and Yemen, and mizrakhim Jews of North Africa, particularly Morocco.
Traditionally, the army kitchen teams, schools, hospitals, hotels and restaurants consisted of mizrakhim Jews, Kurds and Yemen, and this has influenced the culinary methods and ingredients of the country.
Mizrakhi the kitchen, cooking the Jews of North Africa, including grilled meats, sweet pastries with savory puff pastry, rice dishes, stuffed vegetables, pita bread and salads and shows great similarities with Arab cuisine.
Other popular North African dishes in Israel include couscous, chakchouka the matboukha, salad of carrot and khrayme (fish slices cooked in a spicy tomato sauce).
Sephardic dishes, with Balkan and Turkish influences, incorporated in the Israeli kitchen include bourekas, yogurt and taramosalata.
Yemen foods are represented by the jakhnoun, the malaouakh, the skhoug and kubane.
Popular in Israel Iraqi dishes include amba, different types of kebbeh the sambousaks the sabikh and Tursu (hamutzim).
While Israeli agriculture grows and new kinds of fruits and vegetables appeared on the market, cooks and chefs began to experiment and create new dishes with these new products.
They also began using "biblical" ingredients such as honey, figs, pomegranates, and local foods such as Tzabar and chickpeas.
Since the late 1970s, there has been a growing interest in international cuisine, cooking with wine and herbs, and vegetarianism.
A more sophisticated gastronomy began to develop in Israel when cookbooks, such as "From the Kitchen with Love" by Ruth Sirkis, published in 1974, made known global culinary phenomena, coupled with the opening of restaurants serving cuisines such as Chinese, Italian and French, encouraged to eat more outside.
The 1980s were a formative decade a growing optimism after the signing of the peace treaty with Egypt in 1979, the economic recovery of the mid-1980s and the fact that more and more ordinary people go to the abroad have been contributing factors to a greater interest in food and wine.
In this high-quality locally produced ingredients became increasingly available.
For example, private dairies began to produce handmade cheeses made from goat's milk, sheep and cows, which quickly became very popular both among leaders and among the public.
In 1983, the Golan Heights Winery caves were the first among many new Israeli wineries to help transform the palace with their production of dry and semi-dry wines global.
Particular attention was paid to creating hand-made breads and production of high quality olive oil.
The development of aquaculture was successful and ensured a steady supply of fresh fish, and the agricultural revolution in Israel led to an impressive selection and quality of fresh fruits, vegetables and herbs.
The ethnic culinary heritage, both Sephardi and Ashkenazi, made his return with the growing acceptance of a diverse society.
Plus a kitchen at home, many ethnic dishes are now available in markets, supermarkets and restaurants, and is served at weddings and bar mitzvahs, and people eat more and more different dishes those of their own gastronomic tradition.
Crossing and combination of foods from various ethnic groups is the norm, while a multi-ethnic culinary culture develops.
A suivre: / To be continued: / Israeli kitchen 2